Vaccinations against pneumococcal infection in Amel Dental
Pneumococcal infection is one of the most severe bacterial infections, one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially for children under 5 and the elderly. According to the WHO, each year, pneumococcal disease kills 1.6 million lives, 50% of whom are children under two and 13% children under 5.
Pneumococci are bacteria that inhabit the upper respiratory tract. Pneumococcal lung disease has many clinical forms and leads to a number of serious diseases in the case of weakened immunity.Most often, it is pneumonia (90% of children hospitalized with pneumonia are diagnosed with pneumococci).
Also, pneumococcal infection affects not only the lungs and occurs in the form of:
- inflammation of the sinuses;
- inflammation of the joints;
- inflammation of the inner lining of the heart;
- in severe cases – sepsis (blood infection), life-threatening.
In children, pneumococcal bacteria cause bronchitis, otitis, pneumonia and meningitis (pneumococcal meningitis is the most severe).
How and where the infection spreads
The infection affects all age groups by airborne transmission. The bacterium is transmitted by sneezing, coughing, talking to an infected person. Bacteria that normally inhabit the upper respiratory tract are usually activated with a decrease in immunity after illness (cold, flu, measles, etc.), after hypothermia, as a result of stress, hypovitaminosis or fatigue.
In preschoolers attending kindergarten or other group classes, the risk of pneumonia and otitis increases 2-3 times in the first couple of months.
Pneumococci are transmitted through communication between children, as well as through toys, cups, etc. Regular hand washing and disinfection in the garden can reduce the likelihood of infection, but the degree of susceptibility to infection is extremely high. The fight against it is complicated by the fact that pneumococcus exists in several varieties (stereotypes), which increases the risk of re-infection.
The only effective method of protection is vaccination. The characteristic immunity at vaccination is developed in 10-15 days and remains within 5 years. This preventive measure is aimed at reducing the incidence of infection, preventing the spread of forms of the disease throughout the body, reducing the number of disability and mortality associated with pneumococcal infection.
Effectiveness of vaccination
A few facts:
- Since 2000, vaccination has been used worldwide to prevent pneumococcal infections in infants and young children.
- According to the World Health Organization, mass immunization reduces the number of pneumococcal meningitis and severe pneumonia in children by 80 percent or more and the total number of pneumonias and otitis by more than 30 percent.
- The number of potential and active carriers of pneumococcal microbes among children is decreasing. This means that both unvaccinated children and adults get sick less often.
According to WHO forecasts, by 2030, the widespread use of pneumococcal vaccines in world practice will save 5.4-7.7 million children’s lives.
Types of vaccination against pneumococcal infection
The first development of a vaccine against pneumococcal infection began only in the second half of the 20th century. The complexity to this day lies in the variety of microbe types – more than 90 of them.
Initially, a 14-valent vaccine was created, which has been used since 1977. Twelve years later, it was replaced by the 23-valent vaccine, which is still in use. However, it could be given to children only from the age of 2, while the most vulnerable group – newborns and infants, remained unprotected.
The situation changed with the production of conjugate vaccines, which provided more reliable protection against pneumococci from the first months of life. The first of them was the conjugate vaccine “Prevenar”, which included 7 types of pneumococcus.
Today in Ukraine the following vaccinations are used, first of all:
- 1Prevenar (10, 13) of the last generation with a high immune response. Made in the UK, developed by the US .;
- 2Synflorix of the latest generation. Vaccination of the same group of production of Belgium. In addition to strains of pneumococci, it contains components against hemophilic infections.
They protect against the ten most common types of germs that cause up to 80% of pneumococcal infections. Prevenar is used from 2 months of age, Sinflorix – from 6 weeks.
Indications for use of the vaccine Prevenar
WHO recommends vaccination with Prevenar as a prophylaxis for the invasive and non-invasive infections we listed above, from two months of age and later without age restrictions:
- 1As part of the state calendar of preventive vaccinations;
- 2Children and adults who are most at risk of contracting pneumococcal infection.
Prevenar immunization shown:
- all children from 2 months of age;
- children regularly suffering from viral and infectious diseases;
- premature babies;
- children from the risk group: asthmatics, children with diabetes, heart disorders, HIV-infected.
Vaccination according to the prophylactic calendar is not provided for adults, as they have a natural immunity that suppresses pneumococci.
However, there are several risk groups that are indicated for vaccination:
- people over 65 (in developed countries, vaccination is mandatory for them)
- adults with chronic diseases of the heart, blood vessels, lungs, liver, as well as diabetics;
- people with blood pathologies (sickle cell anemia);
- people of all ages who are in organized groups (boarding schools, armies, etc.).
Prevenar vaccination is effective for people at risk in 85% of cases. It has a positive effect on the quality of immunity and life expectancy, reduces the risk of serious complications and forms of infection.
Contraindications to the use of the vaccine Prevenar
- 1Presence of an allergic reaction to the previously administered drug Prevenar® 13 or Prevenar®.
- 2High sensitivity to the components of the drug.
- 3Currently ongoing acute illness, exacerbation of chronic diseases (vaccination in this case is given after recovery or in remission).
When to inoculate?
Children from 2 months are subject to immunization. The vaccination course includes several vaccinations. Just one vaccine does not protect against infection.
From a medical point of view, to protect against pneumococcal infectious diseases, a young child must receive at least 2 vaccinations in the first year of life and revaccinated after one year. Then the immune system, at the most dangerous age for pneumococcal infection, is able to cope with it. Because the earlier you start the vaccination course, the better.
The scheme looks something like this:
The beginning of vaccination 2 – 6 months
The beginning of vaccination is 7-11 months
The beginning of vaccination 1 – 5 years
3 doses plus revaccination
2 doses plus revaccination
2 doses, revaccination according to the doctor’s indication
3 doses with an interval of at least 30 days, and revaccination after 1-1.5 years
2 vaccinations with a break of at least 30 days, re-vaccination in 2 years
2 vaccination procedures with an interval of not less than 2 months
Indications for use of Synflorix vaccine
Indications for vaccination Sinflorix are identical to those of other conjugate vaccines, ie. Prevenarov.
As part of the state vaccination calendar, it is appointed:
- For initial immunization of infants aged 6 weeks (unlike Prevenar, which is prescribed only from 8 weeks) to 6 months. Course: 3 vaccinations with an interval of at least 30 days and revaccination not earlier than in six months.
- For initial immunization of 2-4 month old babies. Course: 2 introductions with an interval of at least 2 months. Revaccination – not earlier than six months after the last administration of the drug.
- Children who missed immunization during the first six months of life. Infants under one year of age are given 2 vaccinations with a break of 30 days with revaccination not earlier than in 2 months. Toddlers from 1 to 2 years make 2 injections with an interval of 2 months. Children 2-5 years are given 2 doses with an interval of at least 2 months.
Infants who have been vaccinated after 1 year are not re-immunized.
The risk group among children and adults who are shown unscheduled vaccination is the same as the risk group for Prevenar.
Contraindications to the use of Synflorix vaccine
Synflorix vaccination is contraindicated in:
- the presence of reactions to the components of the vaccine;
- cases of encephalopathy of unknown etiology;
- during acute diseases, including seasonal allergies;
- exacerbation of chronic diseases.
Vaccination (Dnipro, AmelDental Clinic) with the drug Sinflorix is carried out 2-4 weeks after the elimination of all symptoms of acute disease. In moderate SARS, the vaccine can be given immediately after the temperature normalizes. Slowing colds with unexpressed symptoms are not a contraindication to vaccination.
Features of pneumococcal vaccination in Amel Dental
Immunization with Prevenar and Sinflorix vaccines is carried out at the Amel Dental Clinic in Dnipro, in the pediatric department of Amel Kids. The procedure is performed in the manipulation room in comfortable and sterile conditions. The drug is injected intramuscularly into the anterior surface of the thigh. Children older than one year can be injected into the shoulder. Our pediatricians have many years of experience working with children and do everything to make the little patient feel calm and in a good mood.
On the day of the procedure, doctors carefully examine the child and study the anamnesis. If necessary, appoint a consultation with an allergist or immunologist.
Vaccination in Amel Dental is carried out with the latest generation of drugs, which provides strong protection of the immune system against dangerous infections.
Vaccination reactions are extremely rare. Fever, slight redness and tenderness at the injection site may occur. The reaction can develop no later than 2-3 days and does not last long.
The pediatrician is in touch by phone all this time (even on weekends and holidays), keeping the situation under full control.