Stomatitis: how to treat, types and treatment

Stomatitis in the mouth (mucositis) is a common dental disorder, especially in children. A whole group of diseases of very different etiologies, which differ in the cause of occurrence and symptoms, are collected under one name. What all these diseases have in common is inflammation of the mucous tissues in the oral cavity. Stomatitis can be either a separate ailment or a complication of another disease (for example, scarlet fever, flu, etc.) It manifests itself in the form of ulceration and is most often localized on the tongue (on the tip of the tongue and along the lateral edge), on the gums and mucous membrane of the cheeks, on the lips , in the hard sky.

Symptoms of stomatitis in adults and children

You can recognize a disease in a child by the fact that he begins to be capricious, loses his appetite, and does not sleep well. Symptoms of stomatitis are not difficult to detect with a careful examination of the oral cavity.

The following signs indicate the presence of the disease:

  • inflammation of the mucous membrane (redness);
  • the appearance in the mouth of sores, rashes, wounds, erosion;
  • increased body temperature;
  • hypersalivation (profuse salivation);
  • white coating on the tongue and mucous tissues;
  • unpleasant aftertaste;
  • discomfort, pain, in some cases burning;
  • swelling, bleeding of the gums.

The clinical manifestations of the disease in an adult are mild, and the disease itself is not as acute as in a child. As a rule, small foci of inflammation appear on the tongue, on the inner side of the lip and cheeks, on the gums or on the palate (the mucous membrane in these areas turns red), which can be accompanied by discomfort. The inflammation can be painful, making it difficult for a person to eat (chew food) normally.

Signs of stomatitis differ depending on the causes, stage of the disease, and individual characteristics of the organism. However, regardless of the cause and form of the pathology, with stomatitis there is an increase in the lymph nodes located under the lower jaw.

Stomatitis in adults and children: causes of the disease

The factors that can provoke stomatitis can be roughly divided into the following groups:

  • local;
  • internal;
  • external.

Local include any reasons that have a direct effect on the state of the mucous membrane:

  • non-observance of hygiene rules;
  • use of substandard hygiene products;
  • smoking.

Internal – these are factors associated with internal disorders in the body:

  • hereditary factor;
  • dysfunction of internal organs (cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract);
  • deficiency of a number of vitamins and trace elements (B-group vitamins, selenium, zinc, iron or folic acid);
  • violation of metabolic processes;
  • allergy;
  • hormonal disruption against the background of diseases, during pregnancy;
  • weakened immunity.

External factors:

  • violation of the protocol for taking antibiotics;
  • stress;
  • severe hypothermia;
  • any mechanical damage (for example, after tooth extraction) or permanent mechanical damage to the mucous membrane when wearing poor-quality or impaired braces, prostheses;
  • radiation, chemotherapy.

Types of stomatitis: how to distinguish them from each other and how they are dangerous

Classification of stomatitis depending on the etiology:

  • bacterial – caused by various kinds of bacteria (streptococcal, syphilitic, tuberculous, etc.);
  • viral – occurs against the background of diseases such as herpes virus, influenza, enterovirus infection, measles;
  • fungal – caused by the development of a fungal infection;
  • radiation – the result of radiation (damages tissues with radiation sickness);
  • chemical – acquired as a result of a burn of mucous membranes with aggressive chemicals (hydrogen peroxide, other alkalis or acid);
  • medication – an allergic reaction of the mucous membrane to taking any medications.

Depending on the form, stomatitis in the oral cavity is divided into the following types:

  • catarrhal;
  • ulcerative stomatitis (necrotizing ulcerative Vincent);
  • aphthous;
  • gangrenous.

We will tell you in detail about the most common, as well as the most dangerous types of stomatitis.

Herpes stomatitis

This is a common children’s stomatitis, since it is mainly children who suffer from it, and in 80% of all cases of stomatitis in children, this type of disease is diagnosed.


  • contagious, transmitted by airborne droplets;
  • often occurs in an acute form, in which the child has a high fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea;
  • stomatitis is positioned on the lip, on mucous tissues, it is often found in the palate, especially with infectious, chemical and mechanical tissue damage;
  • because of painful sensations, the child refuses to eat, is capricious, does not sleep well;
  • the lesions first look like bubbles, and then transform into sores, the healing time of which is 3-4 days;
  • with effective treatment, herpetic stomatitis disappears in 7-14 days.

Catarrhal stomatitis

The mildest form of stomatitis. Most often adults suffer from it. The reasons are lack of necessary hygiene, dental disease, gingivitis, mineral deposits on the teeth, helminthic invasion, gastrointestinal problems.

  • the oral mucosa hurts and swells;
  • bad breath appears;
  • separate foci are formed in the form of grayish spots.

With catarrhal stomatitis:

How to treat catarrhal stomatitis? How many days does the disease go away completely? At the initial stage, you can quickly get rid of the problem: if you follow all the doctor’s recommendations, after 10 days there are no signs of illness. In the presence of a related disease, specialized specialists prescribe a general treatment to the patient, and the dentist draws up a local treatment plan.

If you ignore the symptoms of the disease for 10-14 days, serious complications are inevitable.

Ulcerative (necrotizing) gingivitis

This is nothing more than an advanced form of catarrhal stomatitis in adults, in which most of the oral mucosa is affected by ulcerative and erosive foci, redness, swelling and bleeding of the gums, a slight increase in temperature up to 37.5 °, pain in the gums. In more severe cases (in the absence of timely effective treatment), stomatitis on the cheek can turn into extensive ulcers (up to 6 cm in diameter), deep tissue necrosis (mucous and even muscle) is possible, temperature rise to critical values, transition to a chronic stage, prolapse teeth.

How many days it will take to treat ulcerative stomatitis depends on the severity of the disease and individual factors. With the use of modern methods and remedies for the disease, you can quickly get rid of the disease (in 5-10 days).

Aphthous, or recurrent stomatitis

A very common form that affects both adults and children (the incidence rate among children is slightly higher). A sign of pathology is the formation of round ulcers with a red outline, which look like a cold. Aphthous stomatitis spreads on the gums, lips, on the cheeks from the inside, that is, in any part of the oral cavity. It can take place in both acute and chronic form. The chronic form is more common, allergic or infectious etiology, develops against the background of systemic diseases, weakened immunity.

If the patient is diagnosed with aphthous stomatitis, the treatment will be complex (general + local therapy). How long it will last, what drugs will be used, depends on many factors, including the causes and nature of the disease.

Candidal stomatitis

The most famous type of the disease (often called “thrush”). The cause of the pathology is a fungus of the genus Candida. It is believed that stomatitis is a disease of infants, but it is not. Even adults can “pick up” it, especially women in old age (when the body’s resistance is weakened) during hypothermia, contact with carriers of infection, antibiotic treatment.

Symptoms of candidiasis: cheesy white coating on the tongue, on the mucous membrane in the cheeks, palate. When plaque is removed, inflammation can bleed. The duration of the incubation period for candidal stomatitis can be up to 20 days. Treatment is carried out with the use of anti-inflammatory, antifungal drugs, as well as nutritional correction.

Vesicular (infectious) stomatitis

The disease, provoked by enterovirus infections, manifests itself in the form of a blistering rash on the mucous membrane of the mouth, on the tongue, as well as on the hands and feet, accompanied by fever, sore throat. Occurs in young children. According to the symptoms and course of the disease, vesicular stomatitis is similar to herpetic sore throat, as a rule, it is mild. Treatment is most often symptomatic, healing at the site of the rash and recovery occurs quickly.

Gangrenous stomatitis (noma)

This type of pathology is very dangerous. The severe form of stomatitis belongs to the category of wet gangrene. With such a disease, the soft tissues of the oral cavity are damaged, the progressive destruction of the tissues of the cheeks, tongue, gums (mucous, submucosa), face. The etiology is not fully understood, but there is an assumption that anaerobic infection affects the development of pathology. Most often, gangrenous stomatitis occurs in children with weakened immunity after suffering infectious diseases. A huge number of cases are observed in African countries.

The disease develops rapidly: inflammation, the formation of a bubble with hemorrhagic fluid – the stage of the blue spot – swelling and compaction of the affected tissues (vitreous edema) – the formation of a decaying wound. From the first signs of inflammation to a large-scale lesion and the beginning of the process of rejection of necrotic tissues, it can take only 3 days. The disease proceeds against a background of high temperature, the inflammatory process can affect large areas, capture the maxillary sinuses, jaw bone, gums, lead to tooth mobility, severe intoxication, and death.

Treatment is complex, aimed at combating infection, intoxication, general strengthening of the body, in parallel with taking medications, local treatment is prescribed (antiseptic treatment, washing, ointments).

Prosthetic stomatitis

If an adult who has done dental prosthetics has stomatitis, then most likely the disease is associated precisely with wearing a prosthesis.

Symptoms of prosthetic stomatitis:

  • inflamed tissue under the crown;
  • soft tissues become painful;
  • formed an ulcerative or necrotic focus of inflammation (in rare cases).

The main cause of the pathology is bacteria that get under the orthopedic structure, as well as allergy to the material of the orthopedic prosthesis. Treatment is antiseptic and anti-inflammatory and can last up to 2 weeks.

Why is stomatitis in the mouth dangerous? Ways of transmission of the disease

There are a lot of types of stomatitis, but not all of them are contagious. The most common ways of infection:

  • airborne and contact (through kisses, common dishes, sneezing, etc.) – characteristic of bacterial and viral stomatitis;
  • through hygiene items, household items, toys, candidiasis is also transmitted;
  • independently (under the influence of unfavorable factors) such types of diseases as chronic, aphthous, chemical, allergic, etc. develop.

Children most often become infected through toys, fruits, dirty hands, dishes, that is, through contact. Babies pull everything into their mouths and can get candidiasis after playing with a dirty toy, from an untreated nipple.

What negative consequences can stomatitis lead to?

  • inflammation and bleeding of the gums;
  • tooth mobility and loss of teeth;
  • secondary infection;
  • tonsillitis;
  • with long-term treatment, a change in voice (hoarseness, hoarseness) and the development of chronic laryngitis are possible.

But in most cases, stomatitis does not pose a health hazard under one condition – if the visit to the doctor is not postponed, effective treatment is prescribed on time and the patient follows the recommendations of doctors for the treatment and hygiene of the oral cavity.

Diagnosis of stomatitis

Effective diagnostics allows you to accurately determine the form of the disease and prescribe the correct treatment, which maximizes the speed of the recovery process. Since stomatitis has rather eloquent symptoms, in many cases a general clinical picture is sufficient for a doctor to diagnose. Examination, collection of anamnesis is carried out.

In addition, laboratory diagnostic methods are used:

  • general blood analysis;
  • bacterial sowing;
  • viral culture;
  • cytological studies;
  • PCR diagnostics;
  • tissue biopsy;
  • subcutaneous tests with yeast allergen.

There are many types of stomatitis, and some of them may require additional diagnostic tests:

  • immunological;
  • serological reaction;
  • gas chromatography for fungal metabolites;
  • molecular biological diagnostics;
  • method of immunofluorescence, etc.

Features of the manifestation of stomatitis in the mouth during pregnancy

Stomatitis manifests itself during pregnancy in the form of redness on the tongue, palate, on the buccal mucous membranes and on the gums. In the area of inflammation, ulcers appear, erosion in the form of white spots with a red outline. If stomatitis occurs in the expectant mother, treatment should be carried out immediately, since each ulcer is a focus of infection, which can cause intoxication of the body, lead to serious problems in bearing the fetus and complications during childbirth.

How and why does stomatitis begin in children?

Babies are more susceptible to disease.

First, because they love to taste everything. As a result, any thing (toys, someone else’s nipple, an apple that has not been eaten by another child) can be in a child’s mouth, covered with a million unfriendly bacteria that can cause inflammation.

Secondly, even the slightest cold can affect the condition of the mucous membrane. Dry mouth leads to a decrease in the protective function of the mucous membrane.

Thirdly, during the period when the baby’s teeth are erupting, he can injure them on the cheek or lips from the inside during sleep. At the site of the injury, inflammation forms, and then stomatitis develops.

Doctors recommend that parents regularly examine the child’s mouth, especially in the area behind the lower lip, where inflammation is almost always localized with stomatitis. Children’s stomatitis is very painful, and early detection of the disease will help get rid of it in a matter of days.

How to cure stomatitis in a child? In no case use tips from the Internet and do not try to treat your baby with folk remedies on your own. If you suspect that your child has stomatitis, contact the Amel Dental Clinic for a consultation with a pediatric dentist. He will conduct an examination, draw up a treatment plan and give professional advice.

How to treat stomatitis: treatment in adults and children

The sooner the problem is detected and the patient seeks a doctor, the easier and faster the healing of inflammation occurs, and recovery occurs. How to cure stomatitis in the mouth in adults and children?

The treatment regimen is always individual, and it is prescribed by a dentist based on the results of anamnesis and research.

However, in each case, complex therapy is used, which necessarily includes:

  • Improving the quality of hygiene and choosing gentle oral care products (soft brush, non-aggressive pastes).
  • Changing eating habits. It is necessary to exclude from the diet foods that can injure the mucous membrane (sour, spicy, cold, hard, etc.)
  • Antiseptic and anti-inflammatory measures – to fight bacteria, the doctor will recommend regularly rinsing your mouth with a special balm, herbal infusion or other antiseptic agents, smearing with medicinal ointments.

Depending on the cause and form of the disease, you may need:

  • undergo drug treatment aimed at combating viruses, fungal or bacterial infections (if they are the cause of the disease);
  • scrape and treat the foci of inflammation;
  • make professional teeth cleaning;
  • go through a laser treatment procedure (excision of necrotic tissue);
  • regularly handle dentures, and in some cases, reinstall the denture;
  • undergo a course of immunotherapy, etc.

How to treat stomatitis in the mouth, what methods of treatment are most effective, how many days (weeks) treatment should last, the doctor will decide after examination and (if necessary) laboratory diagnostics. You can sign up for a consultation at Amel Dental Clinic on our website by choosing a doctor and a convenient time to visit the clinic.

Stomatitis, treatment: the best remedy is prevention

Fighting a disease is always more difficult than preventing it. By observing the simple rules for caring for the oral cavity, you can preserve the health of the gums, teeth, and even protect your children from passing (contagious) stomatitis.

For effective prevention of stomatitis, Amel Dental Clinic doctors recommend:

  • follow the rules of hygiene – regularly and effectively brush your teeth, rinse with a balm after each meal;
  • do professional cleaning of teeth from plaque every 3-4 months;
  • change the toothbrush on time;
  • rinse your mouth after taking liquid antibiotics;
  • undergo regular check-ups with a dentist;
  • take care of a balanced diet;
  • take care of your health – to maintain a healthy lifestyle, to be treated in time for gastrointestinal pathologies, cardiovascular and infectious diseases;
  • strengthen immunity.